How Did We Get Here?

To identify the strategies included in this tool, we engaged in a three-phase process.

Phase 1. Reviewed existing registries or catalogs available online. These included the following:

And the following catalogs:

For each strategy generated by this review, we cross-referenced materials and reviewed original source documents cited to distill the information.

Phase 2: Conducted a thorough search of the academic literature published between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2013, to identify additional environmental prevention strategies not featured in registries or catalogs listed above.

  • Searches were conducted in health and psychological databases such as Child Development and Adolescent Studies, ERIC, PsychARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsychINFO, SocINDEX, Academic Search Complete, MEDLINE, and Health Policy Reference Center as well as in Google® and Google Scholar.
  • Search terms included combinations of the following: underage, drinking, adolescent, alcohol, effective, effectiveness, evaluation, strategy, intervention, program, environmental, policy, law, regulation, communication, media, enforcement, and outcome.

Strategies (or programs) selected for inclusion were population-based interventions that change the context in which individuals make decisions, were evaluated for outcomes, and targeted populations under the age of 21.

Phase 3. Identified strategy-specific information on:

  • Outcomes related to reduction or prevention of underage drinking and its consequences; and/or
  • Core elements underlying the strategy in order to achieve successful outcomes related to the prevention of underage drinking and its consequences.

These searches were conducted using the same health, psychological, and Internet databases as those in Phase 2.