This guide is organized according to seven types of environmental change strategies identified in our review of the literature: education, tracking and monitoring, retail access, proper medication disposal, enforcement, harm reduction, and multicomponent strategies. For each strategy, we provide a record that contains the following information:

  • The strategy name. This is a general strategy name (e.g., social-marketing-campaigns) rather than the name of a specific program (e.g., Use Only As Directed). For multi-component strategies, however, we do include specific program names.
  • A brief one- or two-sentence description of the strategy to provide an overview.
  • The strategy objective describes the mechanism by which the strategy is thought to reduce or prevent substance abuse outcomes and their related consequences (e.g., to reduce the supply of prescription drugs available for diversion, misuse, or abuse).
  • Detailed information on the typical elements needed for implementation (in chronological order).
  • Population groups for which the strategy was designed and, if applicable, with which the strategy has been implemented and evaluated.
  • Evaluation outcomes related to reduction or prevention of the strategy.
  • Detailed guidelines for implementation that are available from external sources (e.g., print- and web-based implementation tutorials, guidebooks or manuals).
  • Whether the program has been acknowledged by national agencies or organizations and the names of those entities.
  • References are the sources of information from which the record was derived.